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GOOD FRIDAY SUPERSTITION

MY MOTHER WOULD NEVER LET ANY OF US THREE CHILDREN PLAY THE PIANO ON
GOOD FRIDAY. IF WE DID, IT WOULD BRING BAD LUCK. MY MOTHER WAS
TAUGHT THIS BY HER IRISH MOTHER, A VERY RELIGIOUS PERSON.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Keyword(s): LUCK ; MUSIC

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday
BELIEF -- Fate Destiny Luck Chance

Date learned: DATE NOT RECORDED BY COLLECTOR

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HALLOWEEN

ANOTHER GAME IS BLIND FOLDING YOUR PARTNER AFTER HE PICKED OUT A
PICTURE OF A PRETTY GIRL THEN ASKING HIM TO KISS THE PICTURE
AFTER THE BLINDFOLD IS ON. IN THE MEANTIME A SAUCER OF FLOUR IS
SLIPPED OVER THE PICTURE AND HE ENDS UP WITH A WHITE FACE.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Keyword(s): PRANKS

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- October 31 Halloween
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Entertainment Diversion

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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HALLOWEEN

ANOTHER TRICK IS TO TELL SOMEONE THAT YOU CAN PIN A CUP OF WATER INTO
THE TOP OF A DRAPE.
WHILE YOU ARE STANDING ON A CHAIR TRYING TO PIN THE CUP OF WATER YOUR
AUDIENCE ACCIDENTLY GETS A CUP OF WATER ON HIS HEAD.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Keyword(s): PRANKS

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- October 31 Halloween
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Entertainment Diversion

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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ON DAD'S TRIPS THROUGH THE WOODS HE WOULD
CUT PIECES OF WOOD OFF "SLIPPERY ELM"
WHICH HE WOULD BRING HOME TO US TO USE
FOR CHEWING GUM.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Keyword(s): GUM

Subject headings: Food Drink -- Special Form and PurposeObject of Bodily Consumption

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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COUGH

FOR COUGH MEDICINE DAD WOULD MIX ONION JUICE WITH SUGAR, ALSO
HORHOUND DROPS OR GIVE US WARM MILK WITH GINGER.
MOM WOULD ALSO RUB OUR CHEST WITH CAMPHOR, WRAP A WOOL SOCK
AROUND OUR NECK, AND MAKE US WEAR A PNEUMONIA JACKET, WHICH WAS
A PIECE OF WOOL CLOTH THAT FIT AROUND THE CHEST WALL.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Keyword(s): HEAT REMEDY ; HOREHOUND

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Plant

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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FEAST OF ST. NICHOLAS

THE FEAST OF ST. NICHOLAS WAS ALWAYS CELEBRATED BY SETTING OUT ONES,
SHOES THE NIGHT BEFORE. THE NEXT MORNING WE WOULD EXPECT THE SHOES
FILLED WITH CANDY. SOMETIMES ST. NICHOLAS WOULD COME AROUND DRESSED
LIKE SANTA CLAUS. HE WOULD MAKE US SAY A LITTLE PRAYER AND THEN GIVE
US A BAG OF CANDY.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 6 Feast of St. Nicholas
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- F633

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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FEAST OF THE CORPUS CHRISTI

THE FEAST OF THE CORPUS CHRISTI WAS CELEBRATED IN JUNE. ALL THE
CHILDREN WOULD HUNT THROUGH THE WOODS, ALONG ROADSIDES AND TRACKS AND
PASTURES OR ANYWHERE TO GATHER WILD FLOWERS INTO SMALL BASKETS.
THEN, THE MORNING OF THE FEAST DAY THE GIRLS WORE WHITE DRESSES AND
THE BOYS WORE WHITE PANTS, AND THE BLESSED SACRAMENT WAS PARADED
FROM THE CHURCH TO THREE SMALL CHAPELS NEAR THE CHURCH AND BACK TO
THE CHURCH AGAIN. THE SCHOOL CHILDREN DRESSED IN WHITE STREWED
FLOWERS IN THE PATH OF THE PROCESSION. THE NIGHT BEFORE, THE OLDER
BOYS ALSO HAD PLANTED SMALL TREES LINING ON EACH SIDE OF THE WALK
ALONG THE WAY.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- June
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting

Date learned: 11-19-1971

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CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION

AT CHRISTMAS TIME A FRESH EVERGREEN WAS CUT AND SMALL CANDLES WERE
PLACED AT VARIOUS PLACES ON THE TREE. THE TABLE WAS SET WITH A LARGE
PLATE FOR EACH ONE AND THE PERSON'S NAME ON EACH PLATE. THEN THE
MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY WOULD CONGREGATE IN THE KITCHEN TO SAY THEIR
EVENING PRAYERS WHILE FATHER, PRESUMED TO BE STILL WORKING, WOULD
DISTRIBUTE THE GIFTS IN THE DINING ROOM ONTO THE PLATES, WITH THE
TREE ALL LIT UP IN THE CENTER. WHEN THE JOB WAS DONE, HE WOULD RING
A BELL AND THEN LEAVE TO COME BACK INTO THE HOUSE THROUGH THE KITCHEN
DOOR AS IF HE HAD JUST FINISHED HIS CHORES.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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SOAP

MOTHER ALWAYS MADE HER OWN SOAP, ESPECIALLY FOR WASHING
CLOTHES. WHENEVER THE MEATS WERE PREPARED, ALL FAT
WAS SAVED, AND GROUND UP VERY FINE, PLACED IN LARGE
COOKING VESSELS, PLACED IN THE OVEN UNTIL ALL THE FATS
WERE FRIED OUT AND IN A LIQUID STATE. THE CLEAN WHITE
FAT WAS USED IN COOKING AND THE LESS WHITE FAT WAS
USED IN MAKING SOAP, BY COMBINING FAT AND "LEWIS LYE"
WHICH IS A STRONG CAUSTIC, WHICH WHEN COMBINED WITH
FAT, BECOMES SOAP.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Home

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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O TANNENBAUM

O TANNENBAUM, O TANNENBAUM,
WIE TRER SIND DUNE BLATTER.
DU GRUNST NICHT NUR ZUR SOMMER
ZUT NEIN AUCH IM WINTER WENN ES SCHNEIT. MM
O TANNENBAUM, O TANNENBAUM,
WIE TRER SIND DEINE BLATTER.
SO, SO WIRE ICH DICH LIEBE,
SO, SO LIEBE OUCH MICH!
DIE, DIE ZART-LICH-STEN TRIEBE FUHLE ICH EINZIG FUR DICH.
JA, JA, JA, JA FUHLE ICH EINZIG FUR DICH. MM
O CHRISTMAS TREE, O CHRISTMAS TREE,
HOW TRUE ARE YOUR LEAVES.
YOU ARE GREEN NOT ONLY IN THE SUMMER TIME,
BUT ALSO IN THE WINTER WHEN IT SNOWS. MM
O CHRISTMAS TREE, O CHRISTMAS TREE,
HOW TRUE ARE YOUR LEAVES.
SO, SO THE WAY I LOVE YOU,
SO, SO YOU LOVE ME TOO!
THE TENDER LONGING I FEEL ONLY FOR YOU.
YES, YES, YES, YES I FEEL ONLY FOR YOU.

Submitter comment:

SHE DID NOT KNOW HOW TO SPEAK ENGLISH UNTIL SHE ENTERED
HIGH SCHOOL.

Data entry tech comment:

Keypunched by R.J.Miller 11/82

Updated by TRD 01/12

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Keyword(s): Carol ; CHRISTMAS ; Evergreen ; holiday ; Lyrics ; SONG ; Tree

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Admiration Praise Adulation
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- F122
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Songs, caroling

Date learned: 11-00-1971

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TREE PRESERVATION

MY FATHER RELATED TO ME HOW, AT CHRISTMAS TIME, IT IS
NECESSARY TO PUT SUGAR IN THE WATER THAT IS PLACED
IN THE CHRISTMAS TREE STAND. THIS HELPS KEEP THE
TREE GREEN.

Submitter comment: HE COULD NOT REMEMBER WHERE HE HEARD THIS.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Christmas tree

Date learned: NOT GIVEN

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BUTTER AND BUTTER MILK: BY SHAKING A GALLON CAN OF
RICH CREAM FOR A SHORT TIME, IT WOULD BECOME THICK,
THE LIQUID WOULD SEPARATE FROM THE FAT, ADD A LITTLE
SALT AND WE HAD BUTTER. WE DID NOT OWN A BUTTER
CHURN ALTHOUGH MANY DID.

Submitter comment: THE LIQUID AROUND THE BUTTER WAS BUTTERMILK.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: Food Drink -- Animal product Butter

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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BAD WEATHER

WHEN THE SKY WAS "RED IN THE MORNING" DAD WOULD SAY
"SAILORS TAKE WARNING," BECAUSE BAD WEATHER WOULD
BE ON THE WAY. (PROBABLY COMES FROM HANOVER
IN GERMANY).

Submitter comment: NORTHERN LIGHTS ALSO WAS A SIGN OF BAD WEATHER.

Where learned: GERMANY ; ILLINOIS ; PEORIA ; HANOVER

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Weather sign or control

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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WEATHER FORECASTING

WHEN WATCHING CLOUDS, DAD WOULD SAY IF THE CLOUDS
DISAPPEAR BEFORE YOUR EYES, IT MEANS THAT THEY ARE
RAIN CLOUDS. IF THEY INCREASE IN SIZE, THEY ARE
WIND CLOUDS.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Cloud Fog Mist Rain Hail Ice Snow Frost Dew

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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FIDO

THIS IS A LITTLE STORY ABOUT FIDO, OUR FAITHFUL DOG.
ONE COOL AUTUMN DAY, MOTHER HAD LAID OUT A HAM ON THE
BACK PORCH TO LET IT COOL. SHE WANTED TO USE IT A
SHORT TIME LATER, AND THEN IT WAS GONE. THE DOG WAS
LYING NEAR BY PRETENDING TO SLEEP. SHE STOOD IN
FRONT OF HIM, RAISED HER VOICE SCOLDING HIM AND SAYING,
"YOU BRING THAT HAM BACK RIGHT NOW." THE DOG WENT
AWAY WITH HIS HEAD HANGING LOW. IN ABOUT 15 MINUTES
THAT HAM WAS LYING IN FRONT OF THE KITCHEN DOOR AGAIN.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- Bird

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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INDIAN PETE-1

"INDIAN PETE," THE ONLY NAME I EVER KNEW HIM BY, WAS A
CHARACTER THAT WOULD HAVE A GOOD SUBJECT FOR AN AUTHOR.
WE WERE TOLD HE WAS A WHITE BOY THAT WAS CAPTURED AND
RAISED BY THE INDIANS. WHEN I KNEW HIM, HE LIVED WITH
THE INDIANS AND DRESSED IN THE TRADITIONAL INDIAN
FASHION. THE STORIES ABOUT THE NUMBER OF SCALPS HE
HAD, I AM SURE, WERE EXAGGERATED. WHENEVER HE WOULD
COME RIDING HIS BLACK AND WHITE PONY INTO TOWN, IT
WAS REASON FOR MOST MOTHERS TO BRING THEIR CHILDREN IN
TO THEIR HOUSES, BUT MY OLDER BROTHER AND I WOULD
ALWAYS RUN TO MEET HIM AS HE NEVER FAILED TO GIVE US
A RIDE ON HIS PONY. UNFORTUNATELY, THESE RIDES WOULD
COME TO AN END, AS SOON AS HE WOULD SEE MY MOTHER, AS
SHE, LIKE MOST WOMEN IN THE TOWN, WAS AFRAID OF HIM.
THE ONLY REASON FOR THIS FEAR THAT I COULD SEE, WAS HIS
GREAT DESIRE TO GET DRUNK AND START SHOOTING HIS GUN IN
THE AIR AS HE RODE UP AND DOWN THE MAIN STREET. THIS
HABIT LED HIM TO THE TOWN JAIL WHICH BECAME HIS SECOND
HOME. AFTER ONE OF THESE SHOOTING SPREES, IF HE
COULD RIDE OUT OF TOWN BEFORE BEING ARRESTED, NOTHING
WAS DONE ABOUT HIM, BUT IF HE DID NOT RIDE FAST
ENOUGH, IT WAS THE TOWN JAIL FOR INDIAN PETE, UNTIL
HE SLEPT IT OFF.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- Outlaw Criminal Bandit Pirate

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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{ FAMILY SAGA }

MY GRANDPARENTS CAME FROM GERMANY, FROM WESTFALEN
AND HANOVER, MIGRATED TO THE CENTRAL AND NORTHERN
PART OF MINNESOTA TO FIND A BETTER LIFE FOR THEM-
SELVES. THE LIFE IN EUROPE WAS UNBEARABLE SINCE
THE LOWER CLASS WAS HELD DOWN WITH NO CHANCE TO
IMPROVE THEIR STATUS IN LIFE. MANY OTHERS HAD
ALREADY SETTLED IN NORTH CENTRAL U.S. UNDER THE
"HOMESTEAD ACT," WHERE A FAMILY COULD CULTIVATE AN
AREA OF LAND, 160 ACRES OR LESS, WITHOUT COST, LIVE
ON THE LAND AND CLAIM OWNERSHIP TO IT.
THESE PEOPLE IN THIS AREA CAME FROM THE SAME GENERAL
AREA IN EUROPE, SPOKE THE SAME LANGUAGE AND THE SAME
CULTURAL BACKGROUND TRYING TO IMPROVE THEIR LIFE WITH
LITTLE MONETARY CAPITAL TO START WITH. THEY DID NOT
TRAVEL FIRST CLASS. THEY HAD A LITTLE MORE THAN THE
CLOTHES ON THEIR BACK. ONCE THEY ARRIVED IN MINNESOTA
THE NEIGHBORS ALL WORKED TOGETHER BUILDING A LOG CABIN
AND SHARING WHAT THEY HAD.
INDIANS FREQUENTLY STRAYED THROUGH THE FARM AREA
LOOKING IN THE WINDOW OF THE LOG CABIN. WILD ANIMALS
WERE IN EVIDENCE AND WOULD FREQUENTLY ATTACK SMALLER
FARM ANIMALS. WITH EACH YEAR AS THEY EARNED A LITTLE
MONEY, THEY IMPROVED THEIR LIVING STANDARDS BY BUILDING
A BETTER AND OBTAINING MACHINERY TO HELP MAKE A
LIVING AND LATER ON SOME NEW BUILDINGS WERE ADDED.
MY MOTHER WAS THE OLDEST OF SEVEN CHILDREN. SHE WAS
NINE YEARS OLD WHEN MY GRANDPARENTS MIGRATED TO
AMERICA. MY FATHER WAS BORN IN MINNESOTA THE ONLY
SURVIVING CHILD, A TWIN. HIS YOUNGER DAYS WERE SPENT
IN A ONE ROOM LOG CABIN, WHICH LATER BECAME A SEVEN
ROOM HOUSE WITH BASEMENT AND ATTIC AS TIMES IMPROVED
ECONOMICALLY FOR THEM.
TRANSPORTATION WAS BY HORSE AND BUGGY OR ON FOOT.
THEREFORE, PEOPLE COMMUNICATED ONLY WITH OTHERS LIVING
WITHIN THE RADIUS OF A FEW MILES. MY MOTHER MARRIED
MY FATHER AT THE AGE OF 18. BEING NEIGHBORS, IT WAS
EASY FOR THEM TO BECOME ACQUAINTED.
THE BEGINNING WAS DIFFICULT, HAVING NO MODERN CONVEN-
IENCES. THE DAY BEGAN WITH RISING AT 5 A.M. DOING
CHORES, WHICH CONSISTED OF MILKING ABOUT 30 COWS,
POURING THE MILK IN 10 GALLON CANS, HAULING THE MILK TO
THE MILK HOUSE, RUNNING IT THROUGH THE SEPARATOR TO
SEPARATE THE CREAM FROM THE MILK AND STORING IT IN COLD
WATER UNTIL THE CREAM WAS HAULED TO THE CREAMERY TO BE
MADE INTO BUTTER. THE SKIM MILK WAS FED TO THE HOGS
TOGETHER WITH OTHER CEREALS AND CORN. THEN BREAKFAST
WAS SERVED. AFTER BREAKFAST THE MEN WOULD FEED THE
CATTLE, CLEAN THE BARN, DO WHATEVER FIELD WORK WAS
REQUIRED FOR THE DAY. PLOWING, CULTIVATING, SEEDING,
MAKING HAY BY CUTTING GRASS AND DRYING IT, OR HARVEST-
ING. MOTHER WOULD HAVE CLEAN UP WORK, LIKE WASHING THE
SEPARATOR, FEEDING THE CHICKENS, COLLECTING EGGS, WASHING
IRONING AND MENDING CLOTHES AND GENERAL CARE OF THE
HOUSE, FOOD, AND CHILDREN. IT WAS ALSO HER JOB TO SEED
THE GARDEN AND KEEP IT WEED FREE. CAN ENOUGH FOOD TO
LAST THROUGH THE WINTER. GENERALLY CARE FOR ALL FOOD
PREPARATION AND STORAGE.
BECAUSE OF NECESSITY TO SURVIVE IN REMOTE AREAS, MY
PARENTS HAD TO BE RESOURCEFUL, GROW THEIR OWN VEGETABLES,
FRUITS AND GRAINS, RAISE THEIR OWN MEAT AND PROCESS
IT THE BEST WAY THAT THEY KNEW HOW. MY GRANDPARENTS
STARTED A LARGE APPLE, PLUM AND CHERRY ORCHARD WHICH
SERVED OUR FAMILY WELL AND LEFT SOME TO SELL. THE
APPLES WERE PICKED OFF THE TREES IN THE FALL, WRAPPED
IN PIECES OF NEWSPAPER AND STORED IN BARRELS OR BOXES
IN THE BASEMENT TO BE USED IN THE WINTER MONTHS. APPLE
SLICES WERE DRIED ON STRINGS, APPLE SAUCE, APPLE BUTTER
AND APPLE CIDER WAS ALSO MADE AND STORED. THE CHILDREN
WOULD SIT IN THE APPLE ORCHARD ON OCCASION AND SELL
APPLES TO ROAD WORKERS GOING BY, TWO APPLES FOR 5 CENTS.
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE ORCHARD, WE ALSO CONTAINED A BEE
HIVE TO GIVE US A LITTLE HONEY EVERY FALL. AT TIMES,
DAD WOULD GO LOOK FOR BEE HIVES IN THE WOODED AREAS.
WHEN HE WOULD FIND ONE, HE WOULD SMOKE THE BEES OUT WITH
SULPHUR AND BRING SEVERAL GALLONS OF HONEY FOR THE
FAMILY.
THE POTATOES WERE PLANTED ON THE FIELDS, DUG WITH PITCH
FORKS BY HAND, PICKED AND THROWN ON TO A WAGON, HAULED
INTO THE BASEMENT AND STORED FOR WINTER USE. THE WHEAT
OATS, AND BARLEY WERE HAULED TO THE LOCAL GRAINERY TO
BE PROCESSED INTO FLOUR AND CEREALS. HOWEVER, ENOUGH
GRAINS WERE HELD BACK TO FEED CATTLE AND CHICKENS. MOTHER
ALWAYS USED GRAHAM OR WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR IN THE BREAD
FLOUR WHEN BAKING BREAD. ALL FOODS THAT HAD TO BE
PURCHASED FROM THE LOCAL STORE, WAS PURCHASED IN LARGE
QUANTITIES IN ORDER TO MAKE IT LESS EXPENSIVE. FLOUR
BY THE 100 LB. SACK, OATMEAL BY THE 100 LB. SACK, 5
GALLON CANS OF SYRUP TO BE USED ON BREAD, INSTEAD OF
BUTTER, BECAUSE BUTTER HAD TO BE SOLD, IT WAS TOO
EXPENSIVE. BEEF AND HOGS WERE SLAUGHTERED AS THE NEED
EXISTED TO SUPPLY US WITH FOOD. THIS WAS DONE COOPERA-
TIVELY WITH OTHER NEIGHBORS IN ORDER TO MAKE IT EASIER.
VEGETABLES, SUCH AS CARROTS, TURNIPS, BEETS, RUTEBAGAS,
PUMPKIN MELONS, WERE STORED IN THE BASEMENT. THE ROOT
VEGETABLES WERE PACKED IN SAND TO KEEP THEM AIRTIGHT.
ALL TYPES OF BERRIES AND NUTS WERE PICKED IN THE WOODS
AND CANNED.
SOMETIMES, WE WOULD HAVE A LITTLE VARIETY AFTER THE BOYS
RETURNED FROM A HUNTING VENTURE IN THE NEAR WOODED AREA.
PHEASANT, VENISON, QUAIL, YOUNG PIGEONS, WILD TURKEY,
GEESE OR DUCK, JACKRABBIT WERE ALL USED AND MADE PART OF
OUR DIET WHEN AVAILABLE.
THERE WERE OTHER AREAS WHERE THRIFT AND SELF HELP WAS
OUR WAY OF LIFE. IN THE WINTER TIME, JANUARY AND
FEBRUARY, THE MEN WOULD CUT BLOCKS OF ICE, SEVERAL
FEET SQUARE, FROM THE NEARBY FROZEN LAKES, HAUL
IT HOME AND PACK IT IN SAWDUST IN OUR SMALL ICEHOUSE,
TO BE USED DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS. HOWEVER, IT ONLY
LASTED ABOUT HALF OF THE SUMMER. A BLOCK OF ICE WAS
PLACED IN AN ICEBOX, WHICH WAS ABOUT THE SIZE OF A SMALL
REFRIGERATOR, IN THE HOUSE. IT WOULD COOL THE INSIDE
AND THE MELTED ICE WATER WAS COLLECTED AT THE BOTTOM.
THE ICEBOX WATER PAN HAD TO BE EMPTIED EVERY FEW HOURS,
IF YOU WANTED TO AVOID MOPPING UP THE FLOOR.
DOING THE FAMILY LAUNDRY WAS AN ALL DAY CHORE. THE
ONLY LAUNDRY EQUIPMENT WAS A LARGE WATER BOILER, WHICH
WAS PLACED ON TOP OF A COOKSTOVE FILLED WITH RAIN WATER
AND BROUGHT TO A BOIL. ONE LARGE CAKE OF SOAP 3 X 5
INCHES WAS SHAVED AND ADDED TO THE WATER. THE SOILED
CLOTHING WAS RUBBED ON A CORRUGATED WASHBOARD THEN PLACED
IN THIS WASH BOILER AND BOILED FOR ABOUT 30 MINUTES.
WHILE IT WAS BOILING, A CLOTHES STOMPER, WHICH LOOKED
LIKE AN OVERSIZED PLUNGER WITH LONG HANDLE, WAS USED
TO STOMP THE CLOTHES AND MOVE THE CLOTHES AROUND IN A
SIMILAR MANNER AS THE MODERN WASHING MACHINE DOES.
AFTER 30 MINUTES OF THIS ACTIVITY, THE CLOTHES WERE
PLACED IN TWO RINSE WATERS IN TWO LARGE GALVANIZED TUBS,
THEN RAN THROUGH A HAND WRINGER AND HUNG ON THE LINE OUT-
DOORS.
THE SOFT WATER WHICH WAS USED FOR WASHING CLOTHES WAS
COLLECTED FROM THE ROOF OF THE HOUSE THROUGH EAVES
WHICH LED THE WATER INTO A LARGE CISTERN WHICH WAS
LOCATED UNDER THE KITCHEN FLOOR. AN OLD HAND PUMP
PLACED OVER AN ALL-PURPOSE KITCHEN SINK WAS USED TO
PUMP THE WATER OUT OF THE CISTERN.
THE DRINKING WATER WAS OBTAINED FROM A WELL OUTSIDE
WHICH ALSO HAD TO BE PUMPED BY HAND. WHEN A BELT WAS
ATTACHED TO THIS PUMP, {IT} COULD BE MADE TO OPERATE BY
USING THE WINDMILL. THE WIND WOULD MOVE A LARGE WHEEL,
WHICH WAS ABOUT 100 FT. IN THE AIR AND THE POWER WOULD
PUMP THE WATER AUTOMATICALLY, WHICH WAS VERY HANDY FOR
FILLING A LARGE TANK OF WATER FOR THE CATTLE.
WHEN GEESE WERE KILLED FOR FOOD, THE FEATHERS WERE USED
FOR MAKING PILLOWS, ALSO SOME CHICKEN FEATHERS WERE
USED.
THE CORN SHUCKS WERE DRIED AND USED IN MAKING
MATTRESSES FOR THE BEDS.
WOOL FROM THE SHEEP WAS GATHERED, CLEANED AND CARDED
AND SPUN ON THE SPINNING WHEEL, THEN USED FOR MAKING
HOSE, MITTENS AND SWEATHERS, AND SCARFS AND MENDING
YARN.
THE NEIGHBORS OFTEN HAD QUILTING PARTIES. A LARGE
PIECE OF CLOTH WAS STRETCHED ON A FRAME ABOUT THE SIZE
OF A DOUBLE BED. A LAYER OF CLEAN AND CARDED WOOL WAS
PLACED ON THIS CLOTH. ANOTHER PIECE OF CLOTH WAS
PLACED OVER THIS AND THEN THE LADIES WOULD STITCH THE
LAYERS TOGETHER, WHICH TURNED OUT TO BE A WARM QUILT
FOR THE BED.
THE ROOMS IN THE HOUSE WERE KEPT WARM WITH SEVERAL
STOVES. A LARGE WOODSTOVE IN THE KITCHEN SERVED FOR
PREPARING MEALS AND KEPT THE KITCHEN WARM. A FURNACE
IN THE BASEMENT WHICH DIRECTED THE HEAT THROUGH A
FAIRLY LARGE OPENING, 3 FEET BY 3 FEET IN THE FLOOR OF
THE DINING ROOM, KEPT THE OTHER AREAS OF THE HOUSE
FAIRLY WARM. AN AIR VENT IN THE CEILING OF THE DINING
ROOM WOULD ALLOW SOME HEAT TO GET TO THE UPSTAIRS
SLEEPING ROOMS. THE LIVING ROOM HAD A POT-BELLIED
STOVE TO KEEP THE ROOM COSY AND WARM. ASHES WERE OFTEN
USED TO CLEAN AND SCOUR BURNT KETTLES.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: A200
G180

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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THE TURN OF THE CENTURY FOUND A GREAT DEAL OF THE
PRAIRIE LAND OF THE DAKOTAS OPEN FOR SETTLEMENT
THROUGH THE HOMESTEAD ACT. THIS ARID LAND WAS FAR
FROM THE BEST FOR FARMING. MY PARENTS TOOK ADVANTAGE
OF THIS ONLY TO FIND OUT YOU COULD ONLY EXPECT ONE
GOOD CROP EVERY SEVEN YEARS. AFTER THREE YEARS OF
FARMING THE LAND, IT BECAME THEIRS AND THEY SOLD IT
AND MOVED TO THE SMALL TOWN OF LEMON, S. DAKOTA, WHERE
I WAS BORN. ONE OF THE FEW MEMORIES I HAVE OF THE
DAKOTAS ARE THE MANY PRAIRIE FIRES IN THE HOT MONTHS
OF THE YEAR. THESE FIRES WOULD CREEP ALONG THE GROUND
AND TAKE EVERYTHING IN ITS WAY. WHEN A FIRE WAS SPOTTED
EVERY ABLE-BODIED MAN WOULD GO OUT TO FIGHT THE FIRES.
THESE WERE BLAMED ON THE MANY RUSSIANS WHO LIVED IN THE
AREA. I DOUBT IF THERE WAS EVEN ANY PROOF OF THE
RUSSIANS BEING RESPONSIBLE, AS THIS WAS AT A TIME
WHEN WORLD WAR I WAS GOING ON IN EUROPE AND THE U.S.
HAD NOT YET BEEN INVOLVED. A MORE LOGICAL REASON, WHICH
WAS PROVED ON MANY OCCASIONS WAS SPARKS FROM LOCOMO-
TIVES. ON ONE OCCASION, EVERY BODY HAD TO LEAVE TOWN
AS THE FIRE WAS ON THREE SIDES OF THE TOWN AND ONLY ONE
ROAD WAS USABLE AS AN EXIT.
MOVING FROM DAKOTA TO MINNESOTA WAS LIKE TRAVELING
FROM ONE WORLD TO ANOTHER, FOR THE CITY LIFE IN MINN-
ESOTA WAS VERY MODERN. IT WAS EVEN POSSIBLE TO GET ICE
DELIVERED TO THE HOUSE THREE TIMES A WEEK. THIS WAS
SUFFICIENT SERVICE TO KEEP THE ICEBOX COLD ALL OF THE
TIME AND THE VEGETABLE WAGON WITH ITS RINGING BELL
WAS A WELCOME SIGHT FOR THE HOUSEWIFE, AS IT WAS A
CHANCE TO BARGAIN FOR FRESH VEGETABLES AND FRUITS
IN SEASON. AS TIME WENT ON, MODERNIZATION SET IN AND
THE MILKMAN, ICEMAN AND VEGETABLE MAN CHANGED FROM
HORSE DRAWN CARTS TO TRUCKS BEFORE THEY EVENTUALLY
DISAPPEARED ALTOGETHER.
WITH THE ADVENT OF THE CAR, THE MAIL MAN ON THE ROAD
NO LONGER HAD THE RIGHT OF WAY AS A MATTER OF RESPECT.
MY GRANDFATHER ON MY MOTHER'S SIDE NEVER KNEW FOR SURE
JUST HOW OLD HE WAS OR WHEN HIS BIRTHDAY WAS, SO, WHEN
HE MARRIED, HE TOOK HIS WIFE'S BIRTHDAY AS HIS. AS
NEAR AS HE COULD RECALL, HE WAS ABOUT FOUR OR FIVE
YEARS OF AGE WHEN HIS PARENTS WERE MURDERED FOR THEIR
MONEY. HE WAS PLACED IN A CHICAGO ORPHANAGE WITH A
YOUNGER SISTER. HOW MANY YEARS HE SPENT IN THIS
ORPHANAGE IS NOT EXACTLY KNOWN, BUT IN HIS EARLY DAYS
HE WORKED ON A RIVERBOAT BETWEEN NEW ORLEANS AND
MINNEAPOLIS. LATER, HE WAS WORKING AS A FARMHAND
IN SOUTHEASTERN MINNESOTA, WHERE HE MET AND MARRIED
HIS LIFETIME PARTNER. ALL ATTEMPTS TO LOCATE HIS
SISTER WERE OF NO AVAIL, AS ALL RECORDS WERE LOST IN
THE GREAT CHICAGO FIRE.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: A200
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- FAMI
G30

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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FIDO

THIS IS A LITTLE STORY ABOUT FIDO, OUR FAITHFUL DOG.
ONE COOL AUTUMN DAY, MOTHER HAD LAID OUT A HAM ON THE
BACK PORCH TO LET IT COOL. SHE WANTED TO USE IT A
SHORT TIME LATER, AND THEN IT WAS GONE. THE DOG WAS
LYING NEAR BY PRETENDING TO SLEEP. SHE STOOD IN
FRONT OF HIM, RAISED HER VOICE SCOLDING HIM AND SAYING,
"YOU BRING THAT HAM BACK RIGHT NOW." THE DOG WENT
AWAY WITH HIS HEAD HANGING LOW. IN ABOUT 15 MINUTES
THAT HAM WAS LYING IN FRONT OF THE KITCHEN DOOR AGAIN.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- Bird

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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INDIAN PETE-1

"INDIAN PETE," THE ONLY NAME I EVER KNEW HIM BY, WAS A
CHARACTER THAT WOULD HAVE A GOOD SUBJECT FOR AN AUTHOR.
WE WERE TOLD HE WAS A WHITE BOY THAT WAS CAPTURED AND
RAISED BY THE INDIANS. WHEN I KNEW HIM, HE LIVED WITH
THE INDIANS AND DRESSED IN THE TRADITIONAL INDIAN
FASHION. THE STORIES ABOUT THE NUMBER OF SCALPS HE
HAD, I AM SURE, WERE EXAGGERATED. WHENEVER HE WOULD
COME RIDING HIS BLACK AND WHITE PONY INTO TOWN, IT
WAS REASON FOR MOST MOTHERS TO BRING THEIR CHILDREN IN
TO THEIR HOUSES, BUT MY OLDER BROTHER AND I WOULD
ALWAYS RUN TO MEET HIM AS HE NEVER FAILED TO GIVE US
A RIDE ON HIS PONY. UNFORTUNATELY, THESE RIDES WOULD
COME TO AN END, AS SOON AS HE WOULD SEE MY MOTHER, AS
SHE, LIKE MOST WOMEN IN THE TOWN, WAS AFRAID OF HIM.
THE ONLY REASON FOR THIS FEAR THAT I COULD SEE, WAS HIS
GREAT DESIRE TO GET DRUNK AND START SHOOTING HIS GUN IN
THE AIR AS HE RODE UP AND DOWN THE MAIN STREET. THIS
HABIT LED HIM TO THE TOWN JAIL WHICH BECAME HIS SECOND
HOME. AFTER ONE OF THESE SHOOTING SPREES, IF HE
COULD RIDE OUT OF TOWN BEFORE BEING ARRESTED, NOTHING
WAS DONE ABOUT HIM, BUT IF HE DID NOT RIDE FAST
ENOUGH, IT WAS THE TOWN JAIL FOR INDIAN PETE, UNTIL
HE SLEPT IT OFF.

Where learned: ILLINOIS ; PEORIA

Subject headings: PROSE NARRATIVE -- Outlaw Criminal Bandit Pirate

Date learned: 11-01-1971

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