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POLISH FUNERAL

IN POLAND NO EMBALMING TAKES PLACE. THE DECEASED IS LAID OUT
FOR 3 DAYS IN THEIR OWN HOME.
CANDLES ARE SET AT THE HEAD AND FOOT OF THE DECEASED.
FLOWERS ARE THEN ARRANGED AROUND THE CASKET, WHICH
IS SET ON A SMALL PLATFORM USED BY THE VILLAGE. THE CASKET IS
MADE OF VARNISHED WOOD, AND IS
USUALLY DECORATED BY FOLK ART COMMON
TO THAT REGION. THIS IS SOMETIMES DONE WITH STEEL
PINS TO OUTLINE THE
DESIGN OR IS PAINTED ON TOP OF THE CASKET. ON THE FOURTH DAY,
THE BURIAL TAKES PLACE. A PROCESSION FROM THE HOUSE TO THE
CHURCH FORMS WITH THE ALTAR BOYS
GOING FIRST. THE OUTSIDE BOYS CARRY
LIGHTED CANDLES, WHILE THE BOY IN THE MIDDLE CARRIES THE CRUCIFIX.
THEN THE PRIEST FOLLOWS, LEADING HYMMS FOR THE REPOSE OF THE SOUL.
A HORSE DRAWN CARRIAGE FOLLOWS, CARRYIMG THE BODY OF THE DECEASED.
THE FLOWERS FROM THE HOUSE ARE PUT AROUND THE CASKET, AND THE REST
ARE PUT ON TOP OF THE CARRIAGE. MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY FOLLOW IN
ORDER OF RELATEDNESS TO THE DECEASED. EXAMPLE=HUSBAND AND KIDS
FIRST. A MASS IS SAID AT THE CHURCH FOR THE REPOSE OF THE SOUL.
ALL TRADITIONAL SONGS OF THE PARTICULAR REGION ARE SUNG. AT THE
END OF MASS, THE SAME PROCESSION IS FORMED IN EXACTLY THE SAME
ORDER AS BEFORE. AGAIN THE PRIEST LEADS THE MOURNERS IN LOCAL
HYMMS. THE CARRIAGE FOLLOWS WITH
THE MOURNERS BEHIND THE CARRIAGE.
AT THE CEMETERY, THE GRAVE HAS
ALREADY BEEN DUG, WITH THE PLANKS PLACED
ACROSS THE HOLE. THE PRIEST
SAYS THE RITUAL AND BLESSES THE
GROUND. THEN THE CASKET IS NAILED SHUT,
AND IS LOWERED INTO THE GRAVE.
THE RELATIVE CLOSEST TO THE DECEASED THEN THROWS THE FIRST HANDFUL
OF DIRT. THEN EVERYONE, IN FAMILY ORDER, THROWS A HANDFUL OF
DIRT. EVERYONE LEAVES IN ORDER TO GIVE THE IMMEDIATE FAMILY A
CHANCE TO PAY THEIR FINAL RESPECTS.

Submitter comment: VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THIS FUNERAL CHANGE FROM REGION TO REGION.
ATTENDED FUNERAL AS SUCH MYSELF WHILE IN POLAND

Where learned: POLAND ; CHELMNO

James Callow Keyword(s): NUMBER ; SYMBOL

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Death Funeral Burial

Date learned: 07-00-1971

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THE CHRISTMAS TREE

ALL THE CHRISTMAS TREES IN POLAND ARE DECORATED WITH ORNAMENTS
MADE BY THE PEOPLE OF THE HOUSE. THESE ARE USED FROM
YEAR TO YEAR. SOMETIMES NUTS AND CRANBERRIES ARE
STRUNG TOGETHER AND THE GARLAND HUNG ON THE BRANCHES OF THE TREE.
THE LIGHTS ARE USUALLY SMALL CANDLES LIT CAREFULLY BY THE LADY
OF THE HOUSE. THE TREE IS ALWAYS DECORATED ON CHRISTMAS EVE,
LONG AFTER THE LITTLE ONES HAVE GONE TO BED.

Submitter comment: RECEIVED BY LETTER FROM POLAND SEVERAL YEARS AGO

Where learned: POLAND ; KRAKOW

James Callow Keyword(s): PLANTS

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20
Food Drink -- Plant food Fruit
Food Drink -- Plant food Nut

Date learned: 12-01-1975

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POLISH CUSTOM

WHEN A GYPSY PEDDLER CAME TO A POLISH HOUSEHOLD, THE LADY OF THE
HOUSE WOULD TUCK A CORNER OF HER APRON INTO THE WAISTBAND ABOVE THE
DIAGONALLY OPPOSITE CORNER SO THAT THE GYPSY WOULD NOT CHEAT HER
ON ANY SALES.
MY GRANDMOTHER LEARNED THIS WHILE SHE WAS GIRL IN WARSAW IN
THE EARLY 1900'S.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; POLAND ; WARSAW ; COLLECTED IN DETROIT

Keyword(s): GYPSY POLISH SALES

Subject headings: Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Work Commerce Business
BELIEF -- Sign Geometric figure Angular forms

Date learned: 10-05-1967

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A GAMBLER'S LESSON

FAR AWAY BY A RIVER, THERE WAS A LITTLE WHITE HOUSE IN WHICH THERE LIVED A FAMILY.
A FATHER, MOTHER, A BOY AND A GIRL. THEY HAD ONE PROBLEM, THEIR FATHER LIKED TO GAMBLE
AND DRINK. ALL OF A SUDDEN, THEIR MOTHER GOT VERY SICK. THEY DIDN'T HAVE THE MONEY TO SEND
HER TO THE HOSPITAL BECAUSE THE FATHER GAMBLED EVERYTHING HE EARNED. THE MOTHER DIED. THE
GIRL WAS HELPING WITH EVERYTHING AROUND THE HOUSE AND THE BOY WAS TRYING TO EARN MONEY FOR
THE LIVING OF THE FAMILY. ONE DAY THE BOY WAS DRAFTED INTO THE ARMY. HE WAS ALWAYS WONDERING
HOW HIS SISTER WAS MANAGING AT HOME AND WAS ALWAYS VERY SAD. HIS ARMY BUDDY WAS ASKING HIM WHY
HE WAS SO SAD. HE TRIED TO HIDE THE ANSWER FROM HIM, BUT FINALLY TOLD HIM THAT HE HAD A BEAUTIFUL
SISTER WHO COULD NOT MANAGE THE HOME BECAUSE OF THE FATHER'S GAMBLING. HIS FRIEND PROMISED TO
HELP HIM DURING HIS NEXT FURLOUGH. HE WENT TO A THEATRE AND BOUGHT HIMSELF A DEVIL OUTFIT. WHEN
FURLOUGH TIME CAME, HE PUT THE OUTFIT ON, AND ON TOP OF IT, THE BEST SUIT THA HE COULD FIND.
WHEN THEY REACHED THE BOY'S HOME, THEY COULDN'T FIND THE BOY'S FATHER. THE SISTER TOLD HIM THAT
THEIR FATHER WAS A FEW MILES AWAY AT AN INN. THE BOY'S FRIEND WENT TO THE INN AND ASKED FOR THE MAN.
THE INNKEEPER TOLD HIM THAT HE WAS PLAYING CARDS IN THE CORNER. HE WENT OVER TO THE CORNER AND GREETED
THE GAMBLERS, ASKING PERMISSION TO JOIN THEM. THEY ACCEPTED HIM. HE WAS A VERY GOOD CARD PLAYER AND
STARTED TO WIN FROM THE BEGINNING. A FEW HOURS LATER, ONLY THE GIRL'S FATHER WAS LEFT IN THE GAME.
ALL THE OTHERS HAD STOPPED PLAYING BECAUSE THEY HAD LOST EVERYTHING THAT THEY HAD. THE GIRL'S FATHER
WAS LOSING ALSO. BY ELEVEN O'CLOCK, HE ASKED FOR ONE FREE HAND OF CARDS. HE HAD LOST EVERYTHING. THE
BOY GAVE IT TO HIM. IT ALSO WAS A LOSING HAND. THE MAN WANTED TO QUIT AND TOLD THE BOY THAT HE HAD NO
MONEY TO GAMBLE. THE BOY TOOK HIS GLOVES OFF. RED, LONG FINGERNAILS WERE STICKING OUT FROM HIS DEVIL'S
OUTFIT, AND WHEN HE REMOVED HIS HAT, LITTLE HORNS WERE STICKING OUT FROM HIS HAIR. HE SAID, "NOW WE ARE
GOING TO PLAY FOR YOUR SOUL. I WOULD LIKE TO WIN YOUR SOUL." THE MAN JUMPED UP AND STARTED TO RUN TOWARDS
HIS HOME. THE YOUNG MAN WAS PURSUING HIM. THERE WAS A CHURCH BY THE ROAD. THE MA RAN INTO IT. THE MAN TOOK
THE SEAT CLOSEST TO THE ALTAR. THE BOY, OUTSIDE THE CHURCH, WHISTLED HIS WAY TO HIS FRIEND'S HOME. THE MAN
WAITED TILL THE PRIEST CAME IN AND ASKED FOR CONFESSION. THE BOY RETURNED ALL THE WINNINGS TO HIS FRIEND AND
ASKED TO MARRY HIS SISTER. FROM THAT DAY ON, THEY WERE A VERY HAPPY FAMILY. THEIR FATHER DID NOT DRINK OR GAMBLE ANYMORE.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT LEARNED THIS STORY AT AN EVENING OF FAMILY STORY TELLING I LUKOWA, POLAND.
HE LAUGHED QUITE A BIT WHEN DESCRIBING THE DEVIL AN THE EFFECT IT HAD ON THE GAMBLING FATHER.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; POLAND ; LUKOWA

James Callow Keyword(s): SOLDIER DISGUISED AS DEVIL REFORMS COMPULSIVE GAMBLER

Subject headings: Favorites
PROSE NARRATIVE -- Ordinary Tale
PROSE NARRATIVE -- Magic

Date learned: 00-00-1934

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SUPERSTITOON

ROOSTER CROWING BEFORE MIDNIGHT MEANS RAIN.

Submitter comment: IN POLAND, WHERE MY GRANDMOTHER GREW UP, LOCAL TTADITIONS WERE
ACCEPTED AS FACT, AND WERE NOT QUESTIONED.

Where learned: POLAND ; WARSAW ; MIELIEC

Subject headings: BELIEF -- Bird
BELIEF -- Cloud Fog Mist Rain Hail Ice Snow Frost Dew
BELIEF -- Measure of time WeekDayHour
BELIEF -- Weather sign or control

Date learned: 00-00-1940

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CHRISTMAS TREES

CHRISTMAS TREES ARE VERY POPULAR IN POLAND. IN THE LARGE HOUSES IN
THE CITIES THEY ARE PLACED ON THE FLOOR OR THE TABLE. IN OUR
VILLAGE, MIELIEC, PEOPLE HUNG THEM FROM THE CEILING BY THE TOP
BRANCHES, ALL DECORATED WITH APPLES, NUTS, CANDIES AND MANY SMALL
TOYS MADE OUT OF BLOWN EGGS, COLORED PAPER AND STRAW. IT IS
SUPPOSED THAT THE GIFTS WERE BROUGHT BY AN ANGEL, SINCE ST. NICHOLAS
VISITED THE CHILDREN ON DEC. 6. AN OLD CHRISTMAS CAROL IS SUNG AND
THEN THE GIFTS ARE OPENNED.

Submitter comment: EVEN A BARE, SMALL CHRISTMAS TREE WITH A LITTLE ORNAMENTS, BROUGHT
HAPPINESS TO PEOPLE AT A TIME WHEN SIMPLE PLEASURES WERE ALL THAT
MATTERED.

Where learned: POLAND ; WARSAW ; MIELIEC

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 6 Feast of St. Nicholas
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 25 Christmas Also see F642, below.
BELIEF -- Angel

Date learned: 00-00-1940

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CHRISTMAS SONGS

POLISH CAROLS, KOLENDY, ARE SUNG AT MIDNIGHT MASS, OR THE PASTERKA
CALLED SHEPHERDS' WATCH. MANY PEOPLE IN OUR VILLAGE BELIEVED THAT
WHILE WE SANG AND PRAYED, PEACE DESCENDED ON THE WORLD. ANIMALS
ASSUMED VOICES AT THIS TIME, WHICH ONLY WAS HEARD BY THE INNOCENT OF
HEART.

Submitter comment: CHRISTMAS SONGS BROUGHT PEOPLE TOGETHER TO PRAISE THE EARTH AND
HAVE SOME FUN. IT WAS A TIME OF BEING WITH FRIENDS.

Where learned: POLAND ; WARSAW ; MIELIEC

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve
BELIEF -- Animal
BELIEF -- Street Trip Relations between relatives, friends, host and guest Social class Rank

Date learned: 00-00-1940

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EVENTS ON CHRISTMAS EVE

FROM EVENING UNTIL MIDNIGHT, BOYS WALK FROM VILLAGE TO VILLAGE WITH
AN ILLUMINATED STAR AND A KING HEROD CHARACTER, TO SING CAROLS.
THIS IS DONE TO RECEIVE GIFTS. IN SOME DISTRICTS THE BOYS CARRY
PUPPET SHOWS CALLED SZOPKI. THESE ARE BUILT LIKE A LITTLE HOUSE
WITH TWO TOWERS, OPEN IN THE FRONT WHERE A SMALL CRIB IS SET AND
BEFORE WHICH MARIONETTES SING THEIR DIALOGUES.

Submitter comment: THE DRAMATIZATION AND PUPPET SHOWS WERE EAGERLY AWAITED BY THE
CHILREN OF POLAND AS WELL AS THE ADULTS.

Where learned: POLAND ; WARSAW ; MIELIEC

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Religious
DRAMA -- Religious
DRAMA -- Puppet
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve

Date learned: 00-00-1940

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THE WOODEN DISHES

THIS STORY WAS TOLD TO ME BY MY FRENCH-POLISH
GRANDMOTHER (FRATERNAL) SEVERAL TIMES AND SHE SAID
THAT HER GRANDMOTHER TOLD IT TO HER. IT WAS A LESSON IN
RESPECT AND REVERENCE FOR OLD AGE. IT WENT LIKE THIS...
THERE WAS A CERTAIN FAMILY IN A FAIRLY LARGE VILLAGE
WHICH WAS DOING BETTER THAN THE AVERAGE VILLAGER. THIS
FAMILY CONSISTED OF A FATHER, MOTHER, AND TWO
CHILDREN, ONE BOY AND ONE GIRL. IT CAME TO PASS THAT THE
FATHER'S MOTHER DIED AND HIS FATHER WAS LEFT ALONE. AFTER
A FEW YEARS, THE WIDOWED FATHER BECAME TOO FEEBLE TO CARE
FOR ALL HIS NEEDS AND CAME TO LIVE WITH HIS SON AND
FAMILY. NOW, THE WIDOWER HAD A HARD TIME EATING AND
CARING FOR THE CHINA. SOMETIMES HE WOULD LIFT HIS PLATE
AND CLUMSILY DROP IT. THIS HELD TRUE FOR HIS CUP AND
SAUCER; MANY PIECES WERE BROKEN. NOW THE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW
BECAME VERY FRUSTRATED ABOUT THE LOSS OF HER GOOD CHINA AND
COMPLAINED TO HER HUSBAND ABOUT THE SITUATION SEVERAL TIMES.
AT LAST, THEY DECIDED TO GIVE THE ELDER WOODEN
DISHES, ALTHOUGH NOT LIKE THE REST, WHICH COULD NOT BE
BROKEN. SO FOR SOME TIME, THE ELDER WAS SERVED HIS FOOD
ON DISHES OF WOOD WHILE THE REST OF THE FAMILY DINED UPON
FINE CHINA. ONE DAY, THE MOTHER AND FATHER OF THE FAMILY
SAW THEIR CHILDREN BUSY AT WORK. THEY WERE CURIOUS AS TO
WHAT PROJECT THE CHILDREN WERE ENGROSSED IN. WHEN THE
PARENTS INQUIRED ABOUT THE WORK THEY WERE DOING AND WHAT
IT WAS THEY WERE MAKING, THE CHILDREN REPLIED, "WHY ITS
A SET OF WOODEN DISHES FOR YOU AND MAMA WHEN YOU GET OLD!"

Where learned: POLAND

Subject headings: Favorites
PROSE NARRATIVE -- Romantic Realistic

Date learned: 09-00-1984

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"KASZA"

INGREDIENTS: ONE CUP BUCKWHEAT GRITS, ONE EGG, TWO CUPS
BOILING WATER, TWO TABLESPOONS BUTTER, ONE TEASPOON SALT.
MIX THE GRITS AND EGG TOGETHER WELL AND SLOWLY COOK THEM
AND CONTINUALLY STIR. PUT IN THE REST OF THE INGREDIENTS,
COVER, AND COOK OVER A LOW FLAME FOR FIFTEEN TO TWENTY
MINUTES. WHEN DONE, MAKE SURE THE GRITS ARE DRY.

Where learned: POLAND

Subject headings: Food Drink -- Plant food Vegetable

Date learned: 09-30-1984

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Beer Soup (Polish - Polewka z Piwa)

1 qt. beer
4 egg yolks
4 teaspoons sugar
croutons or cheese
Bring beer to boiling point. Beat egg yolks with
sugar until lemon colored. Slowly mix half cup of
the hot beer with yolks and then carefully add yolks
to boiling beer, stirring constantly. Do not boil
because the yolks will curdle. Serve with hot
croutons or your favorite cheese.

Submitter comment: Informant learned this recipe from his mother who
lived in Poland for many years.

Where learned: POLAND

Subject headings: Food Drink -- Mixed preparation in liquid

Date learned: 00-00-1900

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Festival of the Star

The Christmas Eve events in Poland are called the "Festival of
the Stars." This Festival begins when the young children see the
first star that evening. The mother has a white table cloth on
the table with small amounts of straw on it to symbolize the
Bethlehem stable in which Jesus was born. After the first star is
seen by the small children, the mother puts out the food. But
before anyone eats the dinner the family says a prayer of
Thanksgiving and the father passes out small wafers with religious
pictures stamped on them. These wafers have been blessed by the
priest. Those present at the dinner wish each other good health
and happiness and share the wafers with each of the others. One
at a time you go up to another member of the family, wish the
other family member good health and happiness and then break off a
small portion of their wafer and eat it. The special dinner
consists of borscht soup (beet soup) or duck soup, fish (it is a
pike fish with saffron and raisins in it), pierogi, sauerkraut,
mushrooms, nuts and kolatchi cookies (these are cookies made of a
sugar dough which is wrapped around a fruit jam in the middle).
One place setting is left vacant for either the Christ child or an
unexpected guest. This is significant of Mary and Joseph's search
for a place to stay when Mary was to give birth to Jesus. Since
there was no place for them to stay, not even in the inn, this
place guarantees a place for them. After supper, the Christmas
tree is lit, and Polish Christmas carols are sung. The star man
comes to the house and asks the children about religion and tests
their catechism knowledge. Three boys dressed as the Three Wise
Men carry a lit star into the room singing Polish Christmas carols
and bring presents to the children. The children do not believe
in Santa Claus; they receive their presents from the Three Wise
Men, only if they answer the religious questions posed by the star
man correctly. Sometimes men would also dress up to be a camel
and accompany the Three Wise Men in their entrance into the home.
At midnight, the families attend the midnight mass which they call
"Pasterka" or in English, "Shepherd's Mass." The church is
decorated with the manger scene throughout the Christmas season.
On January 6, "The Day of the Three Kings," the Christmas season
is over.

Submitter comment: Many of the activities listed in this Polish Christmas were
practiced by both her mother and father when they lived in Poland.
The Polish Christmas dinner, Christmas Carols, and the tree
decorating are still practiced in the family. Also the family
attends the "Shepherd's Mass" each year.

Where learned: POLAND

Keyword(s): Festival of the Star

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- School

Date learned: 00-00-1950

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WHEN THERE WAS A DEATH IN THE FAMILY AND THE PERSON WAS
WAKED AT HOME, THE TOP OR COVER OF THE CASKET WAS
PLACED OUTSIDE ON THE FRONT LAWN OF THE HOUSE.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT REMEMBERS THIS CUSTOM TAKING PLACE IN POLAND.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; POLAND

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Death Funeral Burial

Date learned: 03-10-1970

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IN POLAND, WHEN A YOUNG CHILD HAS DIED, A CASKET IS MADE
OF WOOD AND PAINTED WHITE WITH PICTURES OF ANGELS
PASTED ON IT.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DEARBORN ; POLAND ; DEARBORN MEDICAL CENTER

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Death Funeral Burial

Date learned: 09-30-1968

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POLISH BURIAL CUSTOM

IN POLAND LITTLE CHILDREN ARE BURIED IN WHITE COFFINS
WITH ANGELS PAINTED ON THE SIDES.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; POLAND

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Death Funeral Burial

Date learned: 01-22-1970

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CARNIVAL--AFTER CHRISTMAS

THE PERIOD OF TIME FROM CHRISTMAS TO ASH WEDNESDAY IS
KNOWN IN POLAND AS "KARNAWAT," OR CARNIVAL. IT IS
A TIME OF DANCES, BALLS AND FESTIVE OCCASIONS. FOR
THE WOMAN OF THE HOUSE, IT IS THE TIME TO MAKE SUCH
PASTRIES AS "PONCZKI," POLISH JELLY DONUTS, AND
"CHRUSCIKI," POLISH ANGEL WINGS. THIS CUSTOM IS
KNOWN FROM PRACTICE TILL THIS DAY IN MY FAMILY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DEARBORN ; POLAND

Subject headings: Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Dance
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Measure of time Winter
Food Drink -- Food

Date learned: 10-28-1967

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IN POLAND ON THE DAY OF A WEDDING THE BRIDE AND
GROOM MET AT THE BRIDE'S FATHER'S HOUSE. THEY
KNELT AT THE FEET OF THE FATHER AND THE FATHER
BLESSED THE UPCOMING MARRIAGE.

Submitter comment: THIS DIFFERS FROM THE AMERICAN CUSTOM WHICH SAYS
IT IS BAD LUCK TO SEE THE BRIDE BEFORE THE WEDDING.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; POLAND

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage Parents' blessing

Date learned: 00-00-1968

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AFTER MARRIAGE CEREMONY, WHEN THE BRIDE AND GROOM ARE
ABOUT TO ENTER THE PLACE WHERE THE WEDDING BREAKFAST
IS HELD, THEY ARE GIVEN BREAD AND SALT TO EAT.
MEANING: ALWAYS HAVE BREAD AS A SOURCE OF LIFE.
ABUNDANCE IN LIFE AS MANY AS THE GRAINS OF SALT.

Submitter comment: LEARNED IN POLAND.

Where learned: POLAND

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage Bread and salt

Date learned: 11-10-1967

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WHEN THE BRIDE IS ABOUT TO LEAVE THE WEDDING RECEPTION,
SHE TAKES OFF HER VEIL AND GIVES IT TO HER MAID-OF-
HONOR. THE BRIDE THEN PUTS ON A BABOOSHKA TO SIGNIFY
THAT SHE IS NOW A MARRIED WOMAN.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT SAID THIS WAS AN OLD POLISH CUSTOM OBSERVED
MANY YEARS AGO IN POLAND.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; POLAND ; SAINT CLAIR SHORES

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Marriage Removing veil

Date learned: 02-20-1972

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POLISH CUSTOM

ON NEW YEAR'S DAY, THE POOR PEOPLE WOULD GO FROM HOUSE TO
HOUSE, TRYING TO COLLECT MONEY OR CLOTHING AND WISHING
THE PEOPLE GOOD LUCK FOR THE NEW YEAR. THEY WOULD ALSO
COLLECT BEANS AND WHEAT.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT'S FAMILY GAVE OUT BEANS AND WHEAT TO THESE
POOR PEOPLE IN POLAND DURING THE 1930S.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT ; POLAND

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- January 1 New Year's
Food Drink -- Typical menus for the various meals For meal hours, see F574.84. Special or festive meals
BELIEF -- Good luck
BELIEF -- Good luck

Date learned: 11-22-1971 ; 00001930S

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