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LENTEN DISHES

IN BULGARIA IMMEDIATELY BEFORE THE BEGINNING OF THE LONG LENTEN FAST,
EVERY DISH IN THE HOUSE IS SCRUBBED TO REMOVE ANY POSSIBLE MEAT
RESIDUE.

Submitter comment: THE INFORMANT SAID THIS IS DONE BECAUSE DURING THE SEVERAL WEEKS OF
LENT IN THE ORTHODOX CHURCH, NO MEAT CAN BE EATEN.

Where learned: HENDRICKSONS PHARMACY ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE

Subject headings: 663 Lent
Favorites
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Pre Lent

Date learned: 03-21-1970

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LENT

MOST FAMILIES HAVE A LOT OF SOUP DURING LENT IN PLACE OF MEATS.
ACQUIRED THIS EVERY LENT.

Where learned: OSGOOD ROAD, ASSUMED ; MILFORD ; NEW HAMPSHIRE, ASSUMED

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE ; FOOD CUSTOM ; SELF-SACRIFICE

Subject headings: 663 Lent

Date learned: 08-00-1967

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Ethnic: Italian

IT IS AN OLD ITALIAN CUSTOM THAT DURING LENT NOTHING MADE FROM EGGS
ARE ( IS ) EATEN UNTIL HOLY SATURDAY AFTERNOON.

Submitter comment:

THIS CUSTOM WAS PASSED TO THE INFORMANT FROM HER MOTHER AND
ORIGINALLY CAME FROM SOUTHERN ITALY.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated / 02-24-2011 / TRD

Where learned: NEW YORK ; PORT CHESTER

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE ; CUSTOM ; Eggs ; ETHNIC ; FOOD ; holiday ; Italian ; Lent ; RELIGIOUS ; SELF-SACRIFICE

Subject headings: 663 Holy Saturday
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting Christian Chronology

Date learned: 11-28-1970

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HOLY WEEK

IN UKRAINE, IT IS CUSTOMARY NOT TO EAT MEAT ALL WEEK.

Submitter comment: INFORMANT LEARNED THIS FROM RELATIVES IN UKRAINE.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; SELF-SACRIFICE--FASTING

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30

Date learned: 12-03-1967

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HOLY WEEK

ON HOLY THURSDAY AND GOOD FRIDAY PEOPLE HAVE ELABORATE
PROCESSIONS THROUGH THE STREETS OF MALTA VISITING SEVEN DIFFERENT
CHURCHES. CHILDREN CARRY SYMBOLS OF THE PASSION--E.G. ( , ) THE
NAILS, ROBE, DICE.

Data entry tech comment: 100% OF THE POPULATION OF MALTA IS ROMAN CATHOLIC.
THIS IS DONE TO SYMBOLIZE THE SEVEN LAST WORDS OF CHRIST.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE

Subject headings: 663 Holy Thursday
663 Good Friday
Favorites
Ballad Song Dance Game Music Verse -- Accessories
DRAMA -- Religious
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Church
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- Spring Planting F663.30
BELIEF -- Number

Date learned: 03-08-1970

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HOLY WEEK ( GOOD FRIDAY )

IN UKRAINE, IT IS CUSTOMARY NOT TO EAT DAIRY PRODUCTS ON HOLY FRIDAY
(ALONG WITH MEAT).

Submitter comment: INFORMANT LEARNED THIS FROM RELATIVES IN UKRAINE.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE ; SELF-SACRIFICE--FASTING

Subject headings: 663 Good Friday

Date learned: 12-03-1967

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POLISH CHRISTMAS CUSTOM

THE DINNER CONSISTS OF THIRTEEN COURSES, ALL OF WHICH ARE MEATLESS.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

James Callow comment:

Christmas Day?

Where learned: UNIVERSITY OF DETROIT ; STUDENT UNION BUILDING

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; Course ; CUSTOM ; Dinner ; FOOD CUSTOM ; holiday ; Ingredients ; Meal ; Vegetarian

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Menus

Date learned: 11-25-1969

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CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION IN LITHUANIA IS VERY ELABORATE. ON CHRISTMAS
EVE, THE TABLE IS SET WITH A WHITE TABLECLOTH, 12 KINDS OF PREPARED
FISH AND IN THE CENTER--A HANDFUL OF STRAW UNDER THE TABLECLOTH, AND
DIRECTLY ON THAT, "PLOTKELES". "PLOTKELES" IS SIMILAR TO COMMUNION,
ONLY SQUARE, A PIECE OF SIZEABLE SIZE (MOSTLY 6 BY 4 INCHES). IN
LITHUANIAN, IT IS CALLED "KRISTAUS LAISKAS"--CHRIST'S LETTER. IT IS
A LETTER ANNOUNCING HIS BIRTH AND THAT HE WILL SAVE US.
WHEN EVERYONE IS SEATED, THEY SAY A PRAYER, AND THEN THE FATHER TAKES
ONE OF THE "LETTERS", HANDS IT TO THE MOTHER WHO BREAKS OFF A PIECE,
THEN TO THE NEXT OLDEST, ETC...SO ON DOWN THE LINE. THEN THE MOTHER
LETS EVERYONE BREAK OFF A PIECE FROM HER PIECE AND SO ON...
AFTER THE PASSING AROUND OF THE LETTER, THE EATING STARTS. THIS IS
THE ONE TIME THAT WE ARE NOT ALLOWED, BY LITHUANIAN CUSTOM, TO EAT
MEAT. WE PREPARE FISH 12 DIFFERENT WAYS: SMOKED HERRING, PICKLED
HERRING, WHITE FISH, OR ANY OTHER KINDS OF FISH. FISH AND VEGETABLES
AS MUCH AS WE WANT--FOR DURING THE DAY WE ARE NOT SUPPOSED
TO EAT ANYTHING AT ALL. THERE ARE TO BE 12 VARIATIONS OF EACH FOOD:
12 FISH, 12 VEGETABLES, 12 FRUIT, 12 CAKES.
AFTER THE FISH AND VEGETABLES, THEN STARTS THE FRUITS AND SWEETS.
MOST OF THE CAKES ARE HOME BAKED, THE FRUITS MADE INTO A PUNCH OR A
FRUIT-BOWL.
TO FINISH OFF THE MEAL, THERE ARE THE TRADITIONAL "SLIZIKAI"--TASTE
JUST LIKE BREAD STICKS, ONLY THEY'RE SMALL AND ROUND. YOU PUT THEM
IN SWEET MILK (IN AMERICA--DILUTED PET MILK) AND THAT IS HOW YOU EAT
THEM.
AFTER DINNER, THERE ARE THE PRESENTS OPENING AND AFTER THAT, TIME TO
GO TO CHURCH.
WHEN YOU FIRST WALK INTO THE CHURCH, EVERYTHING IS TOTALLY DARK.
BUT AT EXACTLY MIDNIGHT ALL THE CANDLES ARE LIT, THE CHIMES AND BELLS
START RINGING, AND THE CONGREGATION BEGINS TO SING. THERE IS A
PROCESSION AROUND THE CHURCH 3 TIMES; THEN THE PROCESSION OF THE
PRIEST, ALTAR BOYS AND GIRLS (THROW FLOWER PETALS IN FRONT OF THE
PRIEST) STOP IN FRONT OF THE CHURCH'S CRIB AND BEGIN TO PRAY. HE
PRAYS FOR THE POPE, THE PRIESTS AND NUNS, FOR THE PEOPLE , AND FOR
THE LITHUANIAN NATION (IN AMERICA, SO THAT THEIR FREEDOM WILL BE
RESTORED) (IN LITHUANIA AT THE PRESENT, THEY ARE UNABLE TO CELEBRATE
IN CHURCH). THEN HE BLESSES THE CONGREGATION WITH HOLY WATER AND THE
MASS BEGINS.
CHRISTMAS DAY IS USUALLY THE VISITING DAY OF FRIENDS AND RELATIVES.
WHEN THE PEOPLE USED TO VISIT, THEY ALWAYS BROUGHT SOMETHING ALONG,
EITHER SOME CAKES, OR CANDY OR A BOTTLE OF WINE AND A LOAF OF BREAD.
IT WAS CONSIDERED A DISGRACE TO GO VISITING AND NOT BRING SOMETHING.
THE CELEBRATING USUALLY LASTED FOR 3 DAYS, BUT NOW--FOR ONLY 1 OR 2
DAYS.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SOUTHFIELD, ASSUMED

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 25 Christmas Also see F642, below.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Menus
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Oplatki
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Lights and candles
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Straw
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Gifts, gift giving at Christmas
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Church
BELIEF -- Sign Color P680.1

Date learned: 03-25-1972

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Ethnic: Polish

A POLISH, CHRISTMAS EVE DINNER CALLS FOR EACH SERVING TO BE
SERVED SEPARATELY. THE NEXT SERVING IS NOT BROUGHT ON UNTIL THE
PREVIOUS ONE HAS BEEN CONSUMED BY ALL THAT WANT IT. GENERALLY,
THE SERVINGS ARE OF VEGETABLES. THERE IS NO MEAT EATEN. NOTHING
IS DRANK DURING THE MEAL.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated 02-23-2011 / TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE ; CHRISTMAS ; Course ; CUSTOM ; Dinner ; DRINK ; ETHNIC ; Feast ; FOOD ; holiday ; meat ; POLISH ; Serve ; tradition

Subject headings: CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Christmas

Date learned: 11-00-1968

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CUSTOM-UKRAINIAN

THERE IS NO MEAT EATEN ON CHRISTMAS EVE, BUT A SPECIAL
12 COURSE DINNER IS SERVED ON CHRISTMAS DAY.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; FOOD ; FOOD CUSTOM ; tradition ; UKRAINIAN

Subject headings: 122 Christmas
122 Christmas

Date learned: 10-31-1968

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CHRISTMAS IS A BELOVED HOLIDAY FOR POLISH PEOPLE. BEGINNING AT
SUNDOWN THE FAMILY SITS DOWN TO THE EVENING MEAL. THIS MEAL IS
MEATLESS AND CONSISTS OF NINE COURSES. WHEN THE FIRST EVENING
STAR APPEARS THE MEAL BEGINS. STRAW IS PLACED UNDERNEATH
A WHITE TABLECLOTH TO SIGNIFY CHRIST'S BIRTH IN A MANGER. A
CHRISTMAS WAFER CALLED "OPLATEK" IS SHARED WITH EACH MEMBER
OF THE FAMILY BEGINNING WITH THE FATHER. GOOD HEALTH, GOD'S
BLESSINGS AND JOY IS EXTENDED TO ALL. THIS COMPLETED, THE MEAL
BEGINS. THE SOUP IS CREAMED MUSHROOM. FOLLOWING WE HAVE PIEROGI
(DUMPLINGS) WITH CABBAGE OR POTATO AND CHEESE. WE ALSO HAVE A
VARIETY OF FISH. COLD HERRING, FISH IN GELATIN (GALARECIE),
BAKED FISH, RYE BREAD AND SAUR KRAUT (SAUERKRAUT) PREPARED WITH
MUSHROOMS. COFFEE AND BABKA FOR DESERT. AFTER THE PEOPLE RETURN
FROM MIDNIGHT MASS THEY BRING OUT THE BAKED HAM AND HOMEMADE
KIELBASA WHICH EVERY GOOD POLACK MAKES HIMSELF AND THEY EAT, DRINK
AND MAKE MERRY.

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; SAINT CLAIR SHORES

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; FOOD CUSTOM

Subject headings: 686 Ninths / Nine
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Table setting and clearing
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Menus
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Oplatki
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Church

Date learned: 11-10-1971

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BREAKFAST BEFORE CHRISTMAS

THE FIRST MEAL ON THE DAY BEFORE CHRISTMAS THE POLISH PEOPLE
HAD ONLY A GLASS OF JUICE AND A PIECE OF BREAD. THEY DID THIS
AS THE LAST DAY OF THEIR FASTING BEFORE CHRISTMAS IN THE
SEASON OF ADVENT. IT WAS ALSO A MEANS OF SAVING FOR THE COMING
FEAST IN CELEBRATION OF THE ARRIVAL OF CHRIST.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday

Subject headings: 122 Christmas

Date learned: 00-00-1968

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UKRAINIAN CUSTOM

CHRISTMAS EVE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN CHRISTMAS. A SPECIAL DINNER
WOULD TAKE PLACE ON CHRISTMAS EVE CONSISTING OF SPECIAL FOODS
LIKE PANCAKES, MUCHROOMS (MUSHROOMS), POPPY SEEDS AND OTHER
REGIONAL FOODS. ONE CANDLE WAS LIT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE TABLE.
THERE WAS NO MEAT OF ANY FORM SERVED ON THIS DAY.

Submitter comment:

INFORMANT IS AN UKRAINIAN-AMERICAN WHO PRACTICED THIS CUSTOM
DURING HER CHILDHOOD.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; PONTIAC

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; Ukraine ; Vegetarian

Subject headings: 122 Christmas
686 Properties attributed to specific numbers or numerals individually.
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Lights and candles

Date learned: 10-02-1971

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CHRISTMAS

THE SUPPER ON CHRISTMAS EVE ALWAYS STRICTLY EXCLUDES ALL MEAT
AND DAIRY PRODUCTS.

Submitter comment:

INFORMANT LEARNED THIS PASSED ALONG FROM GENERATIONS.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS ; ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; Vegan ; Vegetarian

Subject headings: 122 Christmas

Date learned: 11-19-1967

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CHRISTMAS

THERE IS A POLISH CUSTOM THAT THE MEAL EATEN ON CHRISTMAS EVE DAY IS
TO BE A MEATLESS MEAL. THIS MEAL IS CALLED "VIGELIA" BY THE POLES.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; POLISH ; tradition ; Vegetarian

Subject headings: 122 Christmas

Date learned: 03-19-1970

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CHRISTMAS FOOD

POLISH CATHOLICS ABSTAIN FROM MEAT ON CHRISTMAS EVE BUT HAVE NINE
TRADITIONAL FOODS WHICH ARE: SOUP, HERRING, BARLEY, FISH,
DUMPLINGS, PRUNES, PIEROGI, MUSHROOMS, AND BREAD.

Submitter comment:

(AT A POLISH FAMILY DINNER )

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; POLISH ; tradition

Subject headings: 122 Christmas
686 Ninths / Nine

Date learned: 02-00-1970

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HOLIDAY CUSTOM

IT IS AN ITALIAN CUSTOM NEVER TO EAT MEAT ON CHRISTMAS EVE, BUT
TO EAT MANY VARIETIES OF FISH AND THIN SPIGETTI (SPAGHETTI) WITH
OLIVE OIL AND FISH SAUCE.

Submitter comment:

THIS CUSTOM GOES BACK TO SOUTHERN ITALY WHERE THE INFORMANT'S
PARENTS CAME FROM AND WAS TOLD TO THE INFORMANT BY HER MOTHER.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: NEW YORK ; PORT CHESTER

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; Italian ; tradition

Subject headings: 122 Christmas

Date learned: 11-28-1970

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CHRISTMAS CUSTOM

ON CHRISTMAS EVE, AT THE TIME WHEN THE FASTING LAWS WERE IN
EFFECT, MY FAMILY WOULD HAVE A SPECIAL DINNER WHERE ALL THESE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEATLESS DISHES WERE PREPARED. EACH PERSON
HAD TO EAT AT LEAST 9 DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOOD AT THIS DINNER IN
HONOR OF THE BIRTH OF CHRIST. WHY THE NUMBER 9, I DO NOT KNOW,
BUT THE EXPERIENCE IS VERY VIVID IN MY MIND SINCE I NEVER DID LIKE
ANY OF THE DISHES WHICH WERE SERVED.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; tradition ; Vegetarian

Subject headings: 122 Christmas
686 Ninths / Nine

Date learned: NOT RECORDED

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THE TRADITIONAL CHRISTMAS EVE SUPPER (POLISH TRADITION)

A GROUP OF RELATIVES AND FRIENDS WOULD BE INVITED TO PARTAKE
OF SEVEN, NINE, OR ELEVEN MEATLESS FOODS (ALWAYS AN ODD NUMBER).
THE MEAL USUALLY CONSISTED OF SOUPS, DUMPLINGS, FISH, PICKLED
HERRING, BOILED POTATOES, SAUR KRAUT (SAUERKRAUT) WITH MUSHROOMS,
BOILED RICE, COOKED PRUNES. THE TABLE WAS COVERED WITH A
TABLECLOTH, WITH SOME STRAW UNDERNEATH, THERE PRESENTS FOR THE
CHILDREN WOULD BE HIDDEN. THE CHILDREN WERE NOT ALLOWED TO
LOOK FOR THEM UNTIL AFTER THE DINNER. AT THE MEAL EVERYONE WOULD
TAKE A PIECE OF ANGEL BREAD (WAFER) AND SHARE IT WITH OTHERS,
WISHING THEM GOOD HEALTH AND LUCK FOR THE COMING YEAR.

Submitter comment:

SOME PEOPLE STILL PRACTICE THIS CUSTOM TODAY.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; RESIDENCE ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FOOD ; holiday ; LUCK ; Vegetarian

Subject headings: 122 Christmas
686 Seven / Sevenths / Several
686 Ninths / Nine
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Christmas
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve F122.82
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Gifts, gift giving at Christmas
BELIEF -- Number P686.1.11
BELIEF -- Number Odd number (not specific)

Date learned: NOT RECORDED

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CUSTOM-POLISH

THE CHRISTMAS EVE CEREMONY IS CALLED VIGELIA. IT BEGINS WHEN THE
FATHER OF THE HOUSE SEES THE FIRST STAR IN THE SKY. THEN THE FAMILY
SITS DOWN FOR DINNER. THE TABLE IS SET FOR THE WHOLE FAMILY--
BROTHERS, SISTERS, IN-LAWS, NIECES, NEPHEWS, ETC.,--WITH ONE
EXTRA PLACE IN CASE COMPANY SHOULD COME. UNDER THE TABLE CLOTH ARE
LITTLE PIECES OF STRAW TO SYMBOLIZE THE MANGER. THERE IS FASTING
ON THIS DAY--NO MEAT. THE DINNER CONSISTS OF 12 DIFFERENT
FOODS, SYMBOLIZING THE 12 APOSTLES--SUCH AS WINE, MUSHROOM SOUP,
HERRING, PEROGIA (A DOUGH AND CHEES DISH), BOILED PERCH, BOILED
POTATOES AND MASHED POTATOES, AND RELISHES. THERE IS ALSO A
LARGE HOST CALLED OPTATKE. THE FATHER AND THE MOTHER BREAK OFF A
PIECE OF THE HOST AND WISH EACH OTHER HEALTH AND HAPPINESS. THEY
THEN GO TO THE OLDEST SON AND HE TAKES A PIECE OFF THE HOST AND
A PIECE FROM BOTH THE MOTHER'S AND THE FATHER'S AND WISHES THEM
HEALTH AND HAPPINESS AND THIS IS PASSED THROUGH THE FAMILY LIKE THIS.
IT IS TO SYMBOLIZE UNITY. THEN TRADITIONAL POLISH CAROLES ARE
SUNG.

Submitter comment:

(STILL DONE IN AMERICA?) YES.

Data entry tech comment:

Updated by TRD

Where learned: MICHIGAN ; DETROIT

Keyword(s): ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT ; CHRISTMAS ; CUSTOM ; FAMILY UNITY ; FOOD ; holiday ; Vegetarian ; VIGELIA

Subject headings: 122 Christmas
686 Properties attributed to specific numbers or numerals individually.
686 Seconds / Twice / Two
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve Christmas
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 24 Christmas Eve F122.86
CUSTOM FESTIVAL -- December 21 solstice to March 20 Songs, caroling

Date learned: 11-04-1968

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